Giustozzi Lorenzo1, Pieroni Catia2, Principi Massimo3, Mazzuto Giovanni4
1Doctor in Prevention Techniques in the Environment and in the Workplace - TPALL - Polytechnic University of the Marche
2Director of Educational and Professional Activities CdS TPALL - Polytechnic University of Marche
3Tutor CdS TPALL - Polytechnic University of Marche
4Researcher at the Department of Industrial Engineering and Mathematical Sciences - lecturer in Risk Prevention and Protection: Module C in the TPALL course - Polytechnic University of Marche.
Pubblication Date: 2022-11
Printed on: Volume 4, Publications, Online Issue
This work focuses on the study of an experimental plant for the treatment of two-phase mixtures, on which an Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS) has been implemented, with the aim of demonstrating that the achievement of the “Total Quality” concept can be pursued through continuous improvement and effective and efficient management of Occupational Health and Safety, which are the cardinal principles of the OHSMS.
Thanks to the study of the plant, a risk assessment technique called “Fault Tree Analysis” was used to identify the main risks that could be generated during normal operation, and based on this, all the prevention and protection measures necessary to make the plant safe were planned.
The entire design of the SGSL phases is based on the Deming cycle (Plan, Do, Check, Act – planning, implementation, system monitoring, system review).
Methodologies And Materials
The methodologies and materials used for the elaboration of this work are:
- UNI-INAIL guidelines for the design of Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS);
- “PDCA cycle”, also known as the “Deming cycle”, used to structure and design the four phases of the system (planning, implementation, monitoring and review)
- Fault Tree Analysis”, a risk assessment technique, or a symbolic representation of the plant or part of it, aimed at highlighting the interconnections between its various components, in order to trace the possible risks that could develop;
- Report describing the installation and all its components.
Result And Discussion
The design of a OHSMS allowed the definition, through the concepts of continuous improvement and effective and efficient management of Occupational Health and Safety, of the four phases of the system.
The planning phase was structured starting from the definition of the objectives (table 1), then continuing with the identification of the risks (table 2) and of the related prevention and protection measures (tables 3 – 4).
In the implementation phase all operational procedures (tables 3 – 4) were defined in order to implement and enforce the identified prevention and protection measures.
The monitoring phase was designed on the basis of audits, internal controls, to be carried out in order to monitor the progress of the system, through the compilation of registers in which to note objectives achieved and yet to be achieved, non-conformities found and improvements to be made, effective and ineffective measures implemented, so that with data in hand it is possible to review the system.
The OHSMS review phase will consist of reviewing all the data coming from the monitoring phase, therefore all the records produced will be compared, the OHSMS results will be analyzed, the shortcomings will be identified and, on the basis of the data collected, new objectives and new prevention and protection measures will be planned, non-conformities will be eliminated in order to pursue the objective of continuous improvement.
|1.Ensure the correct operation of the plant, avoiding as far as possible dangers and risks to the health of the operators|
|2.To make the plant as safe as possible, eliminating or isolating the possible dangers present|
|3.Ensure the best possible working conditions, so as to supervise the safe operation of the installation|
|4.Identify all necessary modifications in order to achieve the best achievable safety level|
|5.Identify all necessary procedures to maintain the level of safety achieved and identify new ones for the continuous improvement of the safety conditions of the plant|
|TYPE OF RISK||PROBABLE CAUSES|
|1.Ejector explosion risk||1.Obstruction of the air intake duct 2.Alteration of the normal vacuum inside the ejector chamber|
|2.Risk of flooding of air intake duct||1.Obstruction in the ejector outlet duct 2.Alteration of vacuum inside the ejector mixing chamber|
|3.Risk of flooding of entire plant and surrounding area||1.Water outlet duct obstruction 2.Puncture of water tank or various pipes 3.Tank valve failure 4.Pump malfunction|
|4.Risk of tank explosion||1.Obstruction of air and water outlet ducts|
|5.Risk of steams escaping into the air||1.Tank valve faults 2.Puncture of tank and air ducts|
|6.Crushing risk||1.Failure of bonded pipe connections, structural parts and tank|
|7.Risk of access to unauthorized persons||1.Unsupervised access|
|PREVENTION MEASURES||RELATED PROCEDURES|
|1.Constant plant supervision||1.Use of Digital Twin technology, exploiting the creation of alert signals and operating instructions and generation of signals on the 3D model, on Smart Watch 2.Use of augmented reality 3.Use of RFID TAGs on recognition tags|
|2.Risk management interventions and related ordinary and extraordinary maintenance||1.Daily risk management interventions for the purpose of monitoring conditions and scheduling maintenance based on the results obtained from the above interventions.|
|3.Monitoring of tank conditions and fluid inside the tank||1.Daily monitoring of the structural conditions of the tank and the fluid inside it|
|4.Installation of sensors for fluid detection||1.Location of the sensors in the surrounding area and more importantly near the tank, so as to ventilate the environment and wear personal protective equipment (PPE) in time.|
|5.Installation of alarm system||1.Automatic system connected to the platform, so that in the event of an alarm relating to intrusion, the siren is activated, the entrances are locked and the system stops working|
|PROTECTION MEASURES||RELATED PROCEDURES|
|1.Installation of containment structure||1.Structure to be designed in wire mesh, so that it prevents the above-mentioned risks but allows the view of the system. 2.In addition, design of automatic gates made of wire mesh to allow risk management and maintenance work.|
|2.Installation of water collection system||1.Automatic system of pipes, manhole covers and re-pumping of water into the tank, so that its switching on is linked to flooding episodes|
|Use of appropriate PPE in the event of spillage of fluids into the air||1. PPE should always be available and made available to operators. Operators must be informed, trained and instructed in their use. 2. PPE should be stored in such a way as to remain intact and after each use it should be cleaned and returned to its container.|
The management of critical points and deficiencies through the adoption of a cyclical organizational model has made it possible to identify a starting structure, a basis on which to adopt the necessary measures to achieve continuous improvement in health and safety at work conditions, a fundamental concept for achieving Total Quality. In conclusion, this model, which always allows the previously designed phase to be improved with the next one, through a dynamic and not static process, is the key that demonstrates how an OHSMS allows effective and efficient management of health and safety.
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